Look everyone, I'm an expert on Thermodynamics

BamaFan1137

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Nov 5, 2001
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The Laws of Thermodynamics
1st Law of Thermodynamics - Energy cannot be created or destroyed.



2nd Law of Thermodynamics - For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.



3rd Law of Thermodynamics - A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Alternatively, some sum it up as "the conservation of energy." Ultimately, the First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement that energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings through the transfer of heat (q) or by the performance of mechanical work (w).



ΔE = q + w



Energy doesn't simply materialize or disappear. Any gain in energy by the system will correspond to a loss in energy by the surroundings, or any loss in energy by the system will correspond to a gain in energy by the surroundings.



The First Law is covered in more detail in the following lesson in Chapter 5: 5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, and Phase Changes

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be stated in any of three synonymous ways:



For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.



For a spontaneous process, ΔSuniverse > 0.



For a spontaneous process, ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0



Ultimately, for any spontaneous process the entropy, which is related to randomness or disorder, of the universe increases. Entropy is covered in much greater detail in the next lesson (18.2 Entropy) but that it correlates with disorder will suffice for now.



The last statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics divides the universe into two parts: the system (what you're investigating) and the surroundings (everything in the universe besides the system). In chemistry the system is often a chemical reaction under investigation. To be clear the Second Law does NOT mean that ΔSreaction must be positive as ΔSreaction is just the ΔSsystem which can be either positive or negative. But if ΔSreaction for a spontaneous reaction is negative, then the Second Law does mean that ΔSsurroundings must be positive and of greater magnitude in this example so that ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0.



In one sense you can view the Second Law of Thermodynamics as being the most important of the three; in the sense that it is the one most commonly tested upon in this chapter and students should recognize it in any of the three forms presented above.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics
The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that a perfect crystal at zero Kelvin(absolute zero) has zero entropy. First, a perfect crystal means that there are no impurities, has achieved thermodynamic equilibrium, and that it is in a crystalline state where all the atoms/ion/molecules are in well-defined positions in a highly-ordered crystalline lattice. This would exclude amorphous solids like glass that don't have an ordered, crystalline structure and have not achieved thermodynamic equilibrium.



The Third Law is not intuitive but was derived empirically as a system's entropy always approached the same minimum value as the absolute temperature was lowered and approached zero. From the standpoint of statistical mechanics the Third Law implies that a perfect crystal at absolute zero must exist in a single microstate as we'll see in the next lesson on Entropy.



The Third Law also provides us with a reference point, which combined with the fact that entropy is a state function allows us to determine the absolute entropy of a substance at any temperature which is very useful for calculating ΔSreaction as we'll see later in the chapter (18.4 Delta G, Delta H, Delta S and Formation Reactions). We'll also learn that such a reference point is not available for Gibbs Free Energy or Enthalpy leading to the use of formation reactions in calculating ΔGreaction and ΔHreaction.
 

jfegaly

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Feb 1, 2006
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The Laws of Thermodynamics
1st Law of Thermodynamics - Energy cannot be created or destroyed.



2nd Law of Thermodynamics - For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.



3rd Law of Thermodynamics - A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Alternatively, some sum it up as "the conservation of energy." Ultimately, the First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement that energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings through the transfer of heat (q) or by the performance of mechanical work (w).



ΔE = q + w



Energy doesn't simply materialize or disappear. Any gain in energy by the system will correspond to a loss in energy by the surroundings, or any loss in energy by the system will correspond to a gain in energy by the surroundings.



The First Law is covered in more detail in the following lesson in Chapter 5: 5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, and Phase Changes

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be stated in any of three synonymous ways:



For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.



For a spontaneous process, ΔSuniverse > 0.



For a spontaneous process, ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0



Ultimately, for any spontaneous process the entropy, which is related to randomness or disorder, of the universe increases. Entropy is covered in much greater detail in the next lesson (18.2 Entropy) but that it correlates with disorder will suffice for now.



The last statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics divides the universe into two parts: the system (what you're investigating) and the surroundings (everything in the universe besides the system). In chemistry the system is often a chemical reaction under investigation. To be clear the Second Law does NOT mean that ΔSreaction must be positive as ΔSreaction is just the ΔSsystem which can be either positive or negative. But if ΔSreaction for a spontaneous reaction is negative, then the Second Law does mean that ΔSsurroundings must be positive and of greater magnitude in this example so that ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0.



In one sense you can view the Second Law of Thermodynamics as being the most important of the three; in the sense that it is the one most commonly tested upon in this chapter and students should recognize it in any of the three forms presented above.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics
The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that a perfect crystal at zero Kelvin(absolute zero) has zero entropy. First, a perfect crystal means that there are no impurities, has achieved thermodynamic equilibrium, and that it is in a crystalline state where all the atoms/ion/molecules are in well-defined positions in a highly-ordered crystalline lattice. This would exclude amorphous solids like glass that don't have an ordered, crystalline structure and have not achieved thermodynamic equilibrium.



The Third Law is not intuitive but was derived empirically as a system's entropy always approached the same minimum value as the absolute temperature was lowered and approached zero. From the standpoint of statistical mechanics the Third Law implies that a perfect crystal at absolute zero must exist in a single microstate as we'll see in the next lesson on Entropy.



The Third Law also provides us with a reference point, which combined with the fact that entropy is a state function allows us to determine the absolute entropy of a substance at any temperature which is very useful for calculating ΔSreaction as we'll see later in the chapter (18.4 Delta G, Delta H, Delta S and Formation Reactions). We'll also learn that such a reference point is not available for Gibbs Free Energy or Enthalpy leading to the use of formation reactions in calculating ΔGreaction and ΔHreaction.
Ok. But are you a soybean farmer? Boat owner? Oil mogul? Billionaire? Have multiple personalities? Just curious.
 

BamaFan1137

Bull Gator
Nov 5, 2001
9,826
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Ok. But are you a soybean farmer?

No.


Boat owner?

Yes!!! 🥳


Oil mogul?

No.


Billionaire?

No...but I did accidentally claim to be one not so long ago. Funny story. 😂


Have multiple personalities?

Not diagnosed, no.


Just curious.

I've decided that I am a soybean farmer and an oil mogul now. And that's all it takes, right?
 

BillCutting4585

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Gold Member
Oct 15, 2020
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The Laws of Thermodynamics.

You left out the 4th law, which states that FARTS rise, unless you're standing next to an active volcano....
😁

Jus-trying to be helpful on the subject....

giphy.gif
 

BillCutting4585

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Oct 15, 2020
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That's why I know ray isn't one of his socks. You can easily verify which ones are and ray isn't.
I agree, we learned a lot about ray and his friend tonight. Clarifying rules on the board can hurt one’s feelings. We also learned that reading comprehension is truly a sign of being slow. There is another word I would use, one that offends ray, to describe one being slow but will refrain from using it. Last thing I need is our friend on suicide watch after letting words on a message board hurt one’s feelings.
 

RayGravesGhost

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Jun 13, 2021
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I don't have a problem with any words...just want the board moderated equally

But by all means use whatever words like


I think bill is realizing it isn't about me or him...its about what Jason wants
And he just can't bring himself to follow the rules 👿


 

BillCutting4585

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Oct 15, 2020
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I don't have a problem with any words...just want the board moderated equally

But by all means use whatever words like


I think bill is realizing it isn't about me or him...its about what Jason wants
And he just can't bring himself to follow the rules 👿


Can I call you a liar for assuming what I think? Isn’t that what you called me when I assumed you came over in the merger?

I wouldn’t say I realized it. In order to realize, you have to care, we discussed I didn’t care, remember?

I do have a question for you, did you go out of your way to DM Fresno or Jason after I told you I didn’t care about the rules? Be honest Ray, you can’t accuse me of lying and then lie.
 

FresnoGator

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Jan 23, 2005
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Indian Wells, CA / Scottsdale, AZ
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The Laws of Thermodynamics
1st Law of Thermodynamics - Energy cannot be created or destroyed.



2nd Law of Thermodynamics - For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.



3rd Law of Thermodynamics - A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy.

The First Law of Thermodynamics
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Alternatively, some sum it up as "the conservation of energy." Ultimately, the First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement that energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings through the transfer of heat (q) or by the performance of mechanical work (w).



ΔE = q + w



Energy doesn't simply materialize or disappear. Any gain in energy by the system will correspond to a loss in energy by the surroundings, or any loss in energy by the system will correspond to a gain in energy by the surroundings.



The First Law is covered in more detail in the following lesson in Chapter 5: 5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics, Enthalpy, and Phase Changes

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be stated in any of three synonymous ways:



For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.



For a spontaneous process, ΔSuniverse > 0.



For a spontaneous process, ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0



Ultimately, for any spontaneous process the entropy, which is related to randomness or disorder, of the universe increases. Entropy is covered in much greater detail in the next lesson (18.2 Entropy) but that it correlates with disorder will suffice for now.



The last statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics divides the universe into two parts: the system (what you're investigating) and the surroundings (everything in the universe besides the system). In chemistry the system is often a chemical reaction under investigation. To be clear the Second Law does NOT mean that ΔSreaction must be positive as ΔSreaction is just the ΔSsystem which can be either positive or negative. But if ΔSreaction for a spontaneous reaction is negative, then the Second Law does mean that ΔSsurroundings must be positive and of greater magnitude in this example so that ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings > 0.



In one sense you can view the Second Law of Thermodynamics as being the most important of the three; in the sense that it is the one most commonly tested upon in this chapter and students should recognize it in any of the three forms presented above.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics
The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that a perfect crystal at zero Kelvin(absolute zero) has zero entropy. First, a perfect crystal means that there are no impurities, has achieved thermodynamic equilibrium, and that it is in a crystalline state where all the atoms/ion/molecules are in well-defined positions in a highly-ordered crystalline lattice. This would exclude amorphous solids like glass that don't have an ordered, crystalline structure and have not achieved thermodynamic equilibrium.



The Third Law is not intuitive but was derived empirically as a system's entropy always approached the same minimum value as the absolute temperature was lowered and approached zero. From the standpoint of statistical mechanics the Third Law implies that a perfect crystal at absolute zero must exist in a single microstate as we'll see in the next lesson on Entropy.



The Third Law also provides us with a reference point, which combined with the fact that entropy is a state function allows us to determine the absolute entropy of a substance at any temperature which is very useful for calculating ΔSreaction as we'll see later in the chapter (18.4 Delta G, Delta H, Delta S and Formation Reactions). We'll also learn that such a reference point is not available for Gibbs Free Energy or Enthalpy leading to the use of formation reactions in calculating ΔGreaction and ΔHreaction.
If this has a link, please post it vs. cut and paste ...
 

RayGravesGhost

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Jun 13, 2021
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If this has a link, please post it vs. cut and paste ...

While you're looking at posts you should probably take a look at the one with the Jack Nicholson image in it

Should we interpret no moderation ban for that photo to mean that's OK by board rules?
 

RayGravesGhost

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Jun 13, 2021
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Can I call you a liar for assuming what I think? Isn’t that what you called me when I assumed you came over in the merger?

I called you a liar?

I wouldn’t say I realized it. In order to realize, you have to care, we discussed I didn’t care, remember?

You don't have to "care" about something to realize its reality

Do to think this line of illogical crap works?

I do have a question for you, did you go out of your way to DM Fresno or Jason after I told you I didn’t care about the rules? Be honest Ray, you can’t accuse me of lying and then lie.

No.

But did you send your confession about intentionally not obeying the board rules to them?
 

BillCutting4585

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Gold Member
Oct 15, 2020
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I called you a liar?



You don't have to "care" about something to realize its reality

Do to think this line of illogical crap works?



No.

But did you send your confession about intentionally not obeying the board rules to them?

God damn man, reread this thread, it’s all in here for the entire board to see. if you can’t comprehend what you posted or I posted then I’m calling bull shit that you have a degree from UF let alone a high school diploma.
 

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